James H. Thomason Library

English 110 Guide

Toni Morrison's Beloved

Reference Sources

Into Bondage, Aaron Douglas, oil on canvas, 1936
Corcoran Gallery of Art, ArtSTOR Image Database
  Print Encyclopedias
  Online Encyclopedias
  Citation Style
Locating Books

PASCAL Catalog

  WorldCat & I.L.L.
Locating Articles & Criticism
  Reference Sources & Criticism
  Journal Databases
  Journal Finder
Internet Resources
Get Help

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Reference Sources    

Print Encyclopedias

  back to top

Use the index in the last volume of multi-volume sets to save time and find more information. Click on call # links below for item descriptions in THOMCAT.

American Eras, Gale Research, 1998.          
Main Level Reference: R 973.8 Am35A [8 vols]

Full-text available in Gale U.S. History in Context below. Volumes 4 & 5 are releveant to your topic.

Black Women in America, Oxford University Press, 2005.
Main Level Reference: R 305.48 B561B [3 vols]

Chronology of World Slavery, ABC-CLIO, 1999.
Main Level Reference: R 306.3 R618C

Encyclopedia of African American Culture & History, Macmillan Library Reference, 1996.
Main Level Reference: R 973.0496073 En19E2 [5 vols]

Full-text available in Gale U.S. History in Context below.

South Carolina Encyclopedia, University of South Carolina Press, 2006.

Main Level Reference: R 975.7003 So87S

Historical and Cultural Atlas of African Americans, Macmillan, 1991.       
Main Level Reference: R 973.0496073 As13H

The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery, ABC-CLIO, 1997.                
Main Level Reference: R 306.3 H629HM [2 vols]

Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, Macmillan Reference USA, 1998.
Main Level Reference: R 306.3 M228M [2 vols]
Spanning historical eras and continents, this set moves from history and legislation to art, music and literature, describing everything from religious perspectives on slavery to the health and education of slaves .


The Timetables of African-American History, Simon & Schuster, 1995.

Main Level Reference: R 973.0496073 H227T

A chronology of the most important people and events in African-American history.

Violence in America, Scribner, 1999.
Main Level Reference: R 303.60973 V812V [3 vols]
Full-text available in Gale U.S.History in Context below.


Women in Early America: Struggle, Survival, and Freedom in a New World, ABC-CLIO, 2004.

Main Level Reference: R 305.40973 M455W

This cross-disciplinary encyclopedia makes available the research on women in America from 1607 to 1812. Each entry includes a list for further reading on the topic covered.



Online Encyclopedias   back to top

Search individual e-books below using keywords related to your subject.

Encyclopedia of African History [CREDO Reference] Taylor and Francis Group, 2005.
Covering the entire continent from Morocco, Libya, and Egypt in the north to the Cape of Good Hope in the south, and the surrounding islands from Cape Verde in the west to Madagascar, Mauritius, and Seychelles in the east, the Encyclopedia of African History is a new A-Z reference resource on the history of the entire African continent. Try a search for Atlantic slave trade or something relevant to your information need.

Encyclopedia of African American Society [Sage eReference]

Search for "punishment of slaves". eBook includes info on slave trade, folktales, narratives, and much more.

Encyclopedia of Black Studies [Sage eReference]

Search by keyword or browse the A-Z subject index.

Encyclopedia of the U.S. in the 19th Century [CREDO Reference]

Under the Headings Tab go to Slavery to find an overview and eight sub-entries, including Slave Life and Runaway Slaves.

Gale Contextual Encyclopedia of World Literature [GVRL]

Covers world authors from many periods and genres, building an understanding of the various contexts -- from the biographical to the literary to the historical -- in which literature can be viewed. Identifies the significant literary devices and global themes that define a writer's style and place the author in a larger literary tradition as chronicled and evaluated by critics over time.


Gale Library of Daily Life: Slavery and America [GVRL]

Illuminates daily life in slave society in America from colonial times to the end of the Civil War. Provides information on the business and regulation of slavery, the plantation way of life, work, family and community, culture and leisure, health and medicine, religion, resistance and rebellion, and slavery and freedom in the North. description from publisher


Search larger collections of eReference books below:

Oxford African American Studies Center

   Oxford African American Studies Center [Oxford University Press]
A comprehensive online collection focusing on the lives and events which have shaped African American and African history and culture. This collection, edited by Henry Louis Gates, Jr. of Harvard University, includes 7,500 articles from core reference works, over 1,000 images, primary sources with specially written commentaries, and over 100 maps that have been collected to enhance the reference content. Also included are over 100 charts and tables offering information on demographics, government, politics, business, labor, education and the arts.

Try a search for slave narrative. Use the tabs at top of results to choose primary source or other type of source (subject, biography, images & multimedia).

Print resources indexed in this collection:
African American National Biography (much content available, but still under development)
Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619-1895
Encyclopedia of African American History, 1896 to the Present
Black Women in America, Second Edition
Concise Oxford Companion to African American Literature




Sharpe Online Reference:

US History and Culture Collection (SOLR)

Search in Sharpe Online Reference for information on slave treatment or punishment.

  • Select Colonial America from the nine titles available here or search all nine titles at once.
  • In the Advanced Search form, enter keywords in box then select types of information you'd like to find: articles, primary documents, images, maps.

Results are listed with the most relevant items at the top.


click image to search this individual title



Gale U.S. History in Context  
Complete overview of the most-studied events, issues and current information in U.S. history including Primary Source Microfilm’s digital archives with documents, monographs, pamphlets, first-person accounts, and more. Encyclopedic and critical articles, essays and biographies, full-text periodicals and scholarly history journals with links to digitized special collections and audio and video clips of historic speeches and events. Multimedia maps and images, country and era overviews, and chronological timelines for undergraduate audience. Search entire site at top of page or browse under African American Perspectives, by clicking view all to see slavery topics.

Indexes PC print resources below and many others:
American Eras

Dictionary of American History
Encyclopedia of African American Culture & History
Violence in America



Citation Style   back to top


Humanities: Documenting Sources [Research and Documentation Online], Bedford/St. Martins, 2003.


MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Modern Language Association, 2009.
Main Level, Reference: Ready Reference Shelf or R 808.027 M72M


Writing Center, Presbyterian College
Citation styles, writing guides, and scheduling an appointment with a tutor.


Locating Books   back to top

Use the online catalog to locate print books and eBooks at Thomason Library. You can search by author, title, word, or subject.

  • Search for a person, as AUTHOR or SUBJECT, with last name, then first name:             
  Morrison, Toni  [as AUTHOR]
  Morrison, Toni  [as SUBJECT]

  • SUBJECT searching requires use of Library of Congress subject headings. The terms below are examples of subject headings related to your topic:
THOMCAT Subject Headings
  Plantation Life
  Fugitive Slaves
  Slave Narratives [see also Internet Resources below]
  Slave Trade
  Slave's Writings, American
  Slavery--Economic aspects
  Slavery--Moral and ethical aspects
  Slavery--Southern States--Case studies
  Slavery--United States
  Slavery--United States--Anecdotes
  Slavery--United States--Legal status of slaves in free states
  Slaves--South Carolina--Social conditions
  Slaves--United States--Correspondence

Subject searching is an effective and precise method of searching the catalog, however, KEYWORD searching has benefits, also.

  • If you are unsure of the exact title or the correct subject heading to use, try a KEYWORD search using two or three of the most significant words from the title or subject you are trying to find. Place phrases in "quotation marks."

  • Connect words with AND, OR, NOT to focus your search.
  • Try truncation at the end of a word stem to retrieve singular, plural, and other variations of the word.  Use an asterisk (*) to truncate from 1 to 5 characters. Use a double asterisk (**) to include word endings with an unlimited number of characters.
KEYWORD Searching Tips
KEYWORD Search Examples

· Add * to the root of a word to truncate or expand a term:
slave* = slave, slaves, slavery

· Use AND between words to narrow your search:
slave* AND narrative*

· Use OR between words to expand your search and
group words with parentheses:
(beat* OR flog*) AND slave*

· Use "quotes" around a phrase:
"peculiar institution"

Try KEYWORD searching in THOMCAT, other library catalogs & library databases



slave narrative*

slave catcher*

succub* [succubi, succubus]

memor* AND slave* example

slave* AND pamphlet* example

slave* AND sermon* example


Toni Morrison AND
OR spirit*)

"Middle Passage" example


eBooks   back to top


EBSCO eBook Academic Collection
Over 80,000 electronic books covering a wide range of academic disciplines.



EBSCO eBook Collection

Approximately 8,000 electronic books covering a vast array of topics and themes.


ebrary eBook Collection
Approximatley 70,000 electronic books covering a vast array of topics and themes.


PASCAL Catalog back to top


PASCAL Catalog

If you need books in addition to those found at Thomason Library, click on the PASCAL image to pass-through into the PASCAL Catalog. Through PASCAL Delivers, you can order books online in this catalog for delivery within 3-5 working days. This service for current PC students, faculty, and staff is a project of PASCAL- Partnership Among SC Academic Libraries. Borrowers will be notified by e-mail when requested items arrive at Thomason Library. Click here for searching and ordering tips.



Pass through from a
THOMCAT search to PASCAL results by clicking
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WorldCat & I.L.L. back to top


A catalog of books and materials at libraries worldwide. Try searching here to find ALL books available on a topic. Materials available at Thomason Library are highlighted and others can be borrowed through ILL or searched in PASCALCAT.


Interlibrary Loan

ILL is available to PC students, faculty and staff in order to share resources between libraries. Check link for instructions.

Locating Articles & Criticism    
Reference Sources & Criticism   back to top

Literature Resource Center
[Thomson Gale]
Search the Contemporary Authors and Dictionary of Literary Biography databases, as well as full-text criticism from the Contemporary Literary Criticism Select database with one query. Contains full-text journal articles from more than 250 literary journals, critical essays, author biographies, and definitions of literary terms from Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature.

Journal Databases   back to top

Academic Search Complete [EBSCOhost] 
The world's most valuable and comprehensive scholarly, multi-disciplinary full-text database, with more than 8,500 full-text periodicals, including more than 7,300 peer-reviewed journals.

MLA International Bibliography  [EBSCOhost]
Use for literature and language topics. Indexes critical literary and language scholarship and provides access to journals and serials published worldwide, as well as books, essay collections, working papers, proceedings, dissertations, and bibliographies. Nearly 45,000 records are added annually.

An archive of over 350 full-text journals can be searched at this site. Other PC databases link to JSTOR articles through Journal Finder, which guides the user to full-text articles. As an archive, JSTOR does not provide the most current three to five year issues of the journals as specified by the publishers in their agreements with JSTOR.

Project MUSE Basic Undergraduate Collection  
Current and recent volumes of over 100 core journals in the humanities and social sciences.

Journal Finder back to top

Search Journal Finder to determine if PC has full text for the journal, magazine or newspaper you need. Library databases are connected by Journal Finder and lead you to full-text if available.

Browse Journal Finder by title or subject. When browsing or searching, you can read articles from any journal that is available in the Full-text resources online group of results. Choose a database in this group based on the dates available and the time frame in which you are interested.

Key Journals & Newspapers   back to top

America's Historical Newspapers [Newsbank]

explore essential newspapers from 23 states and the District of Columbia. Search by date, presidential era, eras in American History, or enter a custom date range. Select specific titles or search publications by state.

Atlanta Constitution Archive [Proquest]

Full-text & full-image articles from 1868-1942.

Legacy: A Journal of American Women Writers

Mississippi Quarterly

Modern Fiction Studies

The New York Times Archive [Proquest]
Full-text & full-image of NYT articles with coverage from 1851-2008.

Southern Cultures 

Southern Literary Journal

Southern Review

Studies in American Fiction

Internet Resources:   back to top

American Slave Narratives: An Online Anthology
[University of Virginia]
Works Progress Administration (WPA) narratives of former slaves gathered between 1936-1938.



Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938
[American Memory Project, Library of Congress]
This online collection contains more than 2,300 first-person accounts of slavery and 500 black-and-white photographs of former slaves. These narratives were collected in the 1930s as part of the Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) and assembled and microfilmed in 1941 as the seventeen-volume Slave Narratives: A Folk History of Slavery in the United States from Interviews with Former Slaves.



First Person Narratives of the American South [American Memory Project, Library of Congress]
Documents the culture of the nineteenth-century American South from the viewpoint of Southerners. It includes the diaries, autobiographies, memoirs, travel accounts, and ex-slave narratives of not only prominent individuals, but also of relatively inaccessible populations including women & African Americans. Supplemented by UNC-CH with forty first-person narratives, many published before 1860.

Collage or representative image

From Slavery to Freedom: The African-American Pamphlet Collection, 1822-1909 [American Memory Project, Library of Congress]

396 pamphlets from the Rare Book and Special Collections Division, published from 1822 through 1909, by African-American authors and others who wrote about slavery, African colonization, Emancipation, Reconstruction, and related topics.


Historical Census Browser [University of Virginia Library, U.S. Census of Population and Housing]
Browse selected census data from 1790-1970 by state. Data after 1830 includes economic, manufacturing, and agricultural information.

North American Slave Narratives [Documenting the American South, UNC-Chapel Hill] 
This collection includes all the existing autobiographical narratives of fugitive and former slaves published as broadsides, pamphlets, or books in English up to 1920. Also included are many of the biographies of fugitive and former slaves and some significant fictionalized slave narratives published in English before 1920.

Get Help   back to top
Stop by the
Reference Desk

Sara Rowe 833-8313
Dan Lee 833-8437


Hours: 8.30 am - 10 pm for research questions & assistance. Personal appointments also available.
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