James H. Thomason Library

HIST 4001 Senior Seminar:   Lewis & Clark's America

Reference Sources

Shoshone guide Sacagawea with Meriwether Lewis & William Clark, oil and tempera on panel,
N.C. Wyeth, c. 1940. Granger Collection, New York. 
Image courtesy of Encyclopedia Brittanica.

  Dictionaries & Encyclopedias
  Biographical Sources
  Reserve Shelf - Circulation Desk
  Style Guides
Locating Books
  EBSCO eBook Collection
  PASCAL Catalog
  WorldCat & Interlibrary Loan (ILL)
Locating Articles
  Journal Databases
  Historical Newspapers
  Journal Finder
Web Sites
 Get Help

  denotes recommended resource

denotes PC subscription

Reference Sources    

Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, Companions, Guides

  back to top

For background information and definitions refer to the following library reference works and online reference collections:

American Decades. Thomson Gale, 2001. 

Main Level, Reference: R 973.9 Am35A [10 vols]
Covers events, publications, lifestyles, and individuals important to US history during the 20th century. Each volume covers one decade.
American Decades: Primary Sources. Thomson Gale, 2002.
Main Level, Reference: R 973.9 Am35A suppl [10 vols]
Supplemental volumes containing primary sources for each decade of the 20th century. Includes photographs, political cartoons, advertisements, and excerpts from diaries, essays, speeches, poetry, and other literary works written back in earlier time periods covered.

American Eras, Gale Research, c1997-1998. 
Main Level, Reference: R 973.9 Am35A [10 vols]

Refer to indexes of most relevant volumes in this collection: Volume 4 (Development of a Nation, 1783-1815) and Volume 8 (Westward Expansion, 1800-1860) for specific topics. 

American Immigrant Cultures: Builders of a Nation, Macmillan, 1997.

Main Level, Reference: R 305.800973 Am35A [2 vols]

Arranged alphabetically by immigrant group.

Dictionary of American History, Thomson Learning, 2003.

Main Level, Reference: R 973.03 D561D [10 volumes]
Use the index in Vol. 10 to find info on "westward migration" and other topics.


Encyclopedia of  Immigration and Migration in the American West [SAGE eReference Collection], Sage Publications, 2006.

Provides much more than ethnic groups crossing the plains, landing at ports, or crossing borders; this two-volume work makes the history of the American West an important part of the American experience. Through sweeping entries, focused biographies, community histories, economic enterprise analysis, and demographic studies, this Encyclopedia presents the tapestry of the West and its population during various periods of migration. The two volumes examine the settling of the West and include coverage of movements of American Indians, African Americans, and the often-forgotten role of women in the West’s development. [publisher's description]

Encyclopedia of North American Indians, Houghton Mifflin

Encyclopedia of North American Indians
[CREDO Reference], Houghton Mifflin, 1996.

"An authentic and often surprising portrait of the complexities of the Native American experience. Written by more than 260 contemporary authorities, the volume featuresmany Native American contributors — including eminent writers, tribal elders, scholars, and activists — with voices as distinct as their subjects, offering a deeper and more informed appreciation of American Indian life, past and present."

Encyclopedia of the American West, Macmillan, 1996.

Main Level, Reference: R 978 En19E [4 vols]

Check index in Vol 4 for info on your topic. Includes an overview of Women's Suffrage west of the Mississippi.

Encyclopedia of Women in the American West [SAGE eReference], Sage Publications, 2003.

Catures the lives of more than 150 women who made their mark from the mid-1800s to the present, contextualizing their experiences and contributions to American society. Including many women biographied for the first time, the Encyclopedia offers immense value and interest to practicing historians as well as students and the lay public.

The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes, Gale Research, 1998.
Main Level, Reference: R 970.00497 G131G
[4 vols]


Encyclopedia of the United States in the Nineteenth Century [CREDO Reference], Thomson Gale, 2007.
While other resources focus on different aspects of this century, such as the Civil War or immigration, this is the first truly comprehensive treatment to cover all aspects of 19th century history: population, politics and government, economy and work, society and culture, religion, social problems and reform, everyday life, and foreign policy are explored in many A-to-Z articles. Complete with more than 400 illustrations and maps, this set includes an exhaustive year-by-year chronology, original documents, and tables. [publisher's description]


Handbook of North American Indians, Smithsonian Institution, 1978-2006.
Main Level, Reference: R 970.00497 H191H [15 vols]

Volumes 7 and 13 [2 pts] cover areas relevant to this course.

Indian Treaties 1778-1883, Interland Pub., 1972.

Main Level, Reference: R 342.73087 Un3I

Multiculturalism in the United States: A Comparative Guide to Acculturation and Ethnicity, Greenwood Press, 2005.

Upper Level: 305.800973 M919M

Arranged alphabetically by ethnic group (African Americans to Vietnamese Americans), providing information on each group through time.

The New Encyclopedia of the American West

Howard R. Lamar, editor. Yale University Press, 1998.

Main Level, Reference: R 978 N42N 
Over 2,400 entries by more than 300 contributors.

Topics covered include:

  • the formative period of each state
  • the diplomacy of American expansion
  • important discoveries and mountain men
  • major Native American tribes, their leaders,
    & culture

Women in Early America: Struggle, Survival, and Freedom in a New World, ABC-CLIO, 2004.

Main Level Reference: R 305.40973 M455W

This cross-disciplinary encyclopedia makes available the research on women in America from 1607 to 1812. Each entry includes a list for further reading on the topic covered.


Search larger collections of eBooks below:

Gale U.S. History in Context 
A complete overview of the most-studied events, issues and current information in U.S. history including Primary Source Microfilm’s digital archives with documents, monographs, pamphlets, first-person accounts, and more. Encyclopedic and critical articles, essays and biographies, full-text periodicals and scholarly history journals with links to digitized special collections and audio and video clips of historic speeches and events. Multimedia maps and images, country and era overviews, and chronological timelines. Reference works included in this collection:

   Westward Expansion Reference Library

   Explorers & Discoverers of the World 

   Encyclopedia of the United States in the Nineteenth Century 

   Encyclopedia of the American West

   Encyclopedia of the New American Nation

Sharpe Online Reference

PC's nine volume U.S. History and Culture Collection from Sharpe explores the broad range of events, people, movements, and political, social, economic, and cultural issues that have shaped the U.S. and the world from earliest times to the present day. The most relevant titles in this collection are Settlement of America (1607-1890) and Early Republic and Antebellum America (1783-1861) which can be searched individually or you may choose to search all nine volumes.


Biographical Sources   back to top

Gale Biography in Context

Search by person's name. Includes bios and full-text articles from hundreds of periodicals. Browse different types of materials in the "On this Page" box.

Gale U.S. History in Context 

Encyclopedic and critical articles, essays and biographies, full-text periodicals and scholarly history journals with links to digitized special collections and audio and video clips of historic speeches and events. Multimedia maps and images, country and era overviews, and chronological timelines for undergraduate audience.

American National Biography, Oxford University Press, 1998. 
Main Level, Reference:  R 920.073 Am35A [24 vols]

A 24 volume print edition in an A-Z format. Check the book spine to find relevant volume.

Biographical Dictionary of American Indian History to 1900, Facts on File, 2001.

Main Level, Reference: R 970.00497 W146B

The Men of the Lewis and Clark Expedition: A Biographical Roster of the Fifty-one Members and a Composite Diary of Their Activities from All Known Sources, Charles G. Clarke, University of Nebraska Press, 2002.  

On Reserve at Circulation Desk:  917.804 C551M


Reserve Shelf - Fall 2011   back to top

Ask for these titles at the Circulation Desk:

History of the Expedition of Captains Lewis and Clark, 1804-5-6: reprinted from the edition of 1814, 2nd ed., Digital Scanning, c2002.

On Reserve at Circulation Desk: 917.8042 L587H [2 vols]

A reproduction of the 1814 edition of the diary of Captain Meriwether Lewis which includes an introduction and index [vol. 2] produced by Dr. James K. Hosmer for this 2nd edition.

The Men of the Lewis and Clark Expedition: a biographical roster of the fifty-one members and a composite diary of their activities from all known sources, University of Nebraska Press, c2002.

On Reserve at Circulation Desk: 917.804 C551M

Lewis & Clark: the journey of the Corps of Discovery / a film by Ken Burns [videorecording], PBS, Warner Home Video, c2001.

On Reserve at Circulation Desk: DVD 917.8 L585L [2 disk]


DVDs   back to top

Lewis & Clark: The Journey of the Corps of Discovery
. Produced by Dayton Duncan and Ken Burns;
written by Dayton Duncan,  PBS DVD, Burbank, CA: Distributed by Warner Home Video, c2001.
On Reserve at Circulation Desk:
DVD 917.8 L585L [2 discs]


The Journey of Sacagawea, A production of Idanha Films, Inc. and Idaho Public Television. Produced and written by Lori Joyce, directed and edited by Alan Austin, PBS Home Video, 2003.

Lower Level, Movies & Music Room: DVD B Sa14J

This film documents Sacagawea's importance on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Includes the stories of the young army men, French-Canadian boatmen, Clark's African-American slave, and the Shoshone woman named Sacagawea who went with them.

Sacagawea: Heroine of the Lewis and Clark Journey, Produced by Encounter Video, Inc., Questar, 2004. 
Lower Level, Movies & Music Room: DVD B Sa14S
Live-action dramatization as told through Sacagawea’s words. After Lewis & Clark journey to her village on assignment from President Jefferson, Sacagawea joins the expedition in seeking a northwest passage to the sea. Digging up edible roots and negotiating for horses, she saves the Corps of Discovery, time and time again. The program carefully traces the journey from St. Louis to Fort Mandan in North Dakota, over the Rockies to the Pacific and back. Trailer


The Big Build: The Frontier Fort, written and produced by Henry Schipper, A&E Television Networks, 2005.  
Lower Level, Movies & Music Room: DVD 917.8 B48B 

Describes the reconstruction on private property in Kansas of Fort Clatsop which was built by members of the Lewis and Clark Expedition to over winter in 1805/1806, and which was left unused and gradually disintegrated after the expedition left. Authentic building methods are used as much as possible over a fourteen day build with a crew of nine.

Style Guides   back to top

Writing Center, Presbyterian College
Citation styles, writing guides, and scheduling an appointment with a tutor.

Humanities: Documenting Sources [Research and Documentation Online], Bedford/St. Martins, 2003.

The Chicago Manual of Style. 16th ed. The University of Chicago Press, 2010.
2 copies:  Main Level, Reference: R 808.02 M72M and Reference Desk: RR 808.02 M72M

The American Heritage Guide to Contemporary Usage and Style [CREDO Reference], Houghton-Mifflin, 2005.

This authoritative survey of English usage, grammar, and style offers guidance on almost any writing problem imaginable. Arranged in a single, easy-to-use A-Z list, the guide's entries include examples and quotations that show not only correct and incorrect usage but also the relative effectiveness of different expressions in context.


Finding Books


THOMCAT   back to top

Use the online catalog to locate books in Thomason Library. You can search by author, title, keyword, or subject.

  • Search for a person as AUTHOR or SUBJECT, using last name first.
  Lewis, Meriwether [as AUTHOR]
  Lewis, Meriwether [as SUBJECT]
  • SUBJECT searching requires use of Library of Congress subject headings. The terms below are examples of subject headings related to Lewis and Clark..

THOMCAT Subjects
  Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806)
  United States -- Discovery and exploration  
  United States -- Territorial expansion  

Indians Of North America -- History

  Indians of North America -- Government relations  
  Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826 -- Relations with Indians  
  Frontier and pioneer life -- West (U.S.)  
  United States -- Foreign relations -- 1815-1861  
  Space Exploration [Outer Space Exploration] + 3 related SU  


PASCAL Subjects
Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806) 355
Outer Space Exploration 393

Subject searching is an effective and precise method of searching the catalog, however, KEYWORD searching has benefits, also.

  • Try a KEYWORD search if you are unsure of the exact title or the correct subject heading to use. Search using two or three of the most significant words from the title or subject you are trying to find. Place phrases in "quotation marks."

  • Connect words with AND, OR, NOT to focus your search.
  • Try truncation at the end of a word stem to retrieve singular, plural, and other variations of the word.  Use an asterisk (*) to truncate from 1 to 5 characters. Use a double asterisk (**) to include word endings with an unlimited number of characters.
  • Place a phrase in "quotation marks" in a keyword search.


KEYWORD Searching Tips

Add an ASTERISK * to the root of a word


This will usually expand your search results,

 by retrieving any variations on the word stem.

For example:
cartograph* = cartography, cartographer, cartographers, etc.

Use AND between words to narrow your search.

In this example, all items retrieved must have

BOTH the phrase AND the word 

 Shoshone AND.Lewis AND Clark

Use OR between words/phrases

to expand your search.
Use with related terms, synonyms, variant spellings, etc.

 Sacagawea OR Sacajawea

Place a "phrase" in quotation marks.
"Manifest Destiny" is not a subject in THOMCAT.

"Lewis and Clark"

  When using both AND as well as OR in a Boolean search,

nest "OR" words in parentheses ( )

Example of Boolean search using NESTING :

(illness* OR disease*).AND Lewis AND Clark


Try KEYWORD Searching

with THOMCAT, other Library Catalogs,

& the Library's journal databases.


EBSCO eBook Collection   (formerly NetLibrary)   back to top


Use the familliar EBSCOhost interface

to access a variety of eBooks.


After following the "eBook Full Text" link, navigate the title using the Table of Contents provided in the left frame OR search the entire content of the eBook using the "search within" Tool in the right frame.

Example of an EBSCO eBook

In the Footsteps of Lewis and Clark [electronic resource], University Press of Colorado, c2010.






  PASCAL Catalog   back to top


If you need books in addition to those found at Thomason Library, try your search here for books in other academic libraries in SC. Through PASCAL Delivers, you can order books online for delivery within 3-4 working days. This service for current PC students, faculty, and staff is a project of PASCAL- Partnership Among SC Academic Libraries. Borrowers will be notified by e-mail when requested items arrive at Thomason Library. Click here for searching and ordering tips.



Pass through from a
THOMCAT search to PASCAL results by clicking
logo      >>>


WorldCat and Interlibrary Loan   back to top


A catalog of books and materials at libraries worldwide. Try searching here to find ALL books available on a topic. Materials available at Thomason Library are highlighted and others can be borrowed through ILL or searched in the PASCAL Catalog.

Interlibrary Loan

You need to use Interlibrary Loan when:

  • a book you really need is not available at PC or through PASCAL Delivers
  • an article you need is not available at PC [you've already checked Journal Finder to see if the library has access to the journal for the date that you need]

ILL is available to PC students, faculty and staff in order to share resources between libraries. Click ILL link above for instructions.


Locating Articles  
Journal Articles   back to top

Academic Search Premier [EBSCOhost]
Full text coverage and citations with abstract for journals and magazines from a wide variety of discpilines.

JSTOR provides access to journals from a wide variety of disciplines, including indexing (citations) for 247 history journals and full-text coverage for over 100 history journals. This archive covers, in most cases, the full run of journals from the first issue of volume one; however, the most current three to five year issues of the journals are not available as specified by the publishers in their agreements with JSTOR.

 Project MUSE Basic Undergraduate Collection  
Current and recent volumes of 112 core journals in the humanities and social sciences.


 Newspapers (Historical)   back to top

America’s Historical Newspapers, 1690-1876 [NewsBank Archive of Americana]
A searchable database with issues from over 700 historical American newspapers from 23 states and the District of Columbia focusing largely on the 18th and early 19th centuries. Select specific titles or search publications by state.

 Journal Finder   back to top

Journal Finder provides access to PC's electronic and print journals, magazines, and newspapers in one convenient location.

Search Journal Finder to determine if PC has full text for the journal, magazine or newspaper article you need. Library databases are connected by Journal Finder and lead you to full-text when available.

Search or Browse

Journal Finder

by Title, Full Text Online, Subject, or by Database name

Citation example:

Foley, William E., "Lewis and Clark's American Travels: the view from Britain." The Western Historical Quarterly
34:3 (Autumn 2003),


  1. Note the date of the journal issue you need before following Journal Finder link.
  2. Default search is Journals by Title in Full Text. Type or paste the title of the journal or magazine into the empty box (example: The Western Historical Quarterly).
  3. You may need to select your title from the results by clicking on the title you seek.
  4. Results for your title include up to three categories: Full Text Resources in your library (in print), Full Text Resources Online, and Indexing Only (not full text).
  5. Note the "dates available" in a Full Text category. Click on a database that covers the date you need.
  6. Choose, year and issue OR volume and issue, then look through the contents of that issue for the article you need. Articles are usually listed in page number order and are available in HTML or PDF format.

When browsing or searching in Journal Finder, you can read articles from any journal that is available in the "Full-text resources online" group of results. Choose a database from this group based on the dates available and the time frame in which you are interested.


Web Sites


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American Journeys: eyewitness accounts of early American exploration and settlement [Wisconsin Historical Society]

This digital library and learning center includes primary documents. Click on the Lewis & Clark box on the home page.

Discovering Lewis & Clark [Lewis and Clark Fort Mandan Foundation]

The intention of this foundation is not only to preserve and maintain the site produced by Joseph Mussulman since 1998-2008, but also to undertake a series of new initiatives and historical investigations, and to introduce emerging technologies at appropriate times, in pursuit of our mission to make this the most comprehensive and useful Lewis and Clark website on the Internet.

Envisaging the West: Thomas Jefferson and the Roots of Lewis & Clark [UVA and UNL]

An electronic archive of over 150 letters, 3 journals, 25 statutes and treaties, a bibliography of Jefferson’s geography books, 22 map images, and a geo-rectified cartographic database of 8 interactive maps. This collection reveals the evolution of Jefferson’s thoughts on the west as he and others made plans for the Lewis and Clark expedition of 1803-1806. description from site

Under the Archive View you can browse by person, native group, place, or document type.

Historical Maps of the United States [Perry Castaneda Library, University of Texas]

Includes maps of Early Inhabitants, Exploration & Settlement, and U.S. Territorial Growth and more.

The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition [National Endowment of the Humanities, University of Nebraska]

This site features the full text - almost five thousand pages - of the journals. Also included are a gallery of images, important supplemental texts, and audio files of selected passages plus Native American perspectives. With a focus on full-text searchability and ease of navigation, the Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition Online is intended to be both a useful tool for scholars and an engaging website for the general public.

A Journal of the Voyages and Travels of a Corps of Discovery Under the Command of Captain Lewis and Captain Clarke: From the Mouth of the River Missouri, through the Interior Parts of North America, to the Pacific Ocean ; During the years 1804, 1805, & 1806 [University of Pittsburg]

Digitized version of the Journal.

Lewis and Clark Expedition Maps 1803-1810 [Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University]

83 manuscript maps and related material detailing the route of the Lewis and Clark Expedition to the Pacific Coast and back, 1804-1806.

Lewis & Clark: The Journey of the Corps of Discovery [Ken Burns, PBS]

Companion web site to the PBS production by Ken Burns.

Sections include: Inside the Corps, Native Americans, Interactive Trail Map, and Living History.

The latter section includes comments by historians and authors on York, Sacagawea, Lewis' leadership, etc.


Lewis & Clark: The National Bicentennial Exhibition [Missouri Historical Society]

The Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation, Inc. 

The foundation's mission is to preserve, promote and teach the diverse heritage of Lewis and Clark for the benefit of all people. Site includes useful links under "Resources" section.

Library of Western Fur Trade Historical Source Documents [American Mountain Men]

Devoted to the history, traditions, tools, and mode of living, of the trappers, explorers, and traders known as the Mountain Men. The full-text diaries, journals and narratives at this site are "accounts of the Rocky Mountain fur trade during the first half of the 19th century. Most of these are either primary or secondary historical sources; that is, either written by, or as told by those who were actually there. These documents have been transcribed from printed or manuscript form. The resulting text files have been manually checked and edited to conform to the original source. In most cases, any spelling or grammatical errors from the original have been retained." description from site

National Expansion and Reform 1815-1860: Primary Documents in American History [Library of Congress]

The Library of Congress is home to many of the most important documents in American history. The web site provides links to materials digitized from the collections of the Library of Congress that supplement and enhance the study of these crucial documents.

Nebraska Partnership for American History Education (NPAHE) Resource Page [University of Nebraska Lincoln]

Choose a topic by theme or time period, then choose type of material to explore (primary documents, texts, images...).

New York Public Library Digital Gallery

Try a search for Lewis and Clark to view 23 items including historical maps, vintage posters, rare prints, photographs and more.

Rivers, Edens, Empires: Lewis & Clark and the Revealing of America [Library of Congress]

On April 7, 1805, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark left Fort Mandan for points west, beginning the process of "filling in the canvas" of America. This online exhibition features the Library's rich collections of exploration material documenting the quest to connect the East and the West by means of a waterway passage.


Get Help back to top
Stop by the
Reference Desk

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Dan Lee 833-8437


Hours: 8.30 am - 10 pm for research questions & assistance. Personal appointments also available.
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