James H. Thomason Library


 History 377: Nineteenth Century Europe, 1789-1914

Background Information Sources




The Proclamation of Wilhelm as Kaiser of the new German Reich, in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles on 18 January 1871.  Anton Alexander von Werner (1885) Oil on canvas.   Bridgeman Art Library Archive,

CREDO Reference Database.

  Encyclopedias & Dictionaries
  Handbooks & Companions

Biographical Sources

  Writing Guides
Locating Books
  Search Tips
  PASCAL Delivers
  WorldCat & I.L.L.
Locating Articles
  Journal Article Databases
  Journal Finder
Internet Sources
  Collections of Primary Source Documents
  Primary Source Readings (from syllabus)
Get Help

denotes recommended resource

Background Information Sources    
Encyclopedias & Dictionaries   back to top

Encyclopedia of European Social History from 1350 to 2000. Peter N. Stearns, editor-in-chief   Scribner, c2001.   6 volumes.   Main Level, Reference: R 306.094 En19E  
v. 1. Methods and theoretical approaches -- The periods of social history -- Regions, nations, and peoples -- Europe and the world -- v. 2. Processes of social change -- Population and geography -- Cities and urbanization -- Rural life -- State and society -- v. 3. Social structure -- Social protest -- Deviance, crime, and social control -- Social problems and social reform -- v. 4. Gender -- The family and age groups -- Sexuality -- Body and mind -- Work -- v. 5. Culture and popular culture -- Modern recreation and leisure -- Religion -- Education and literacy -- Everyday life -- v. 6. Biographies -- Contributors -- Index

An Encyclopedia of World History; Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Chronologically Arranged. Compiled and edited by William L. Langer. Houghton Mifflin Pub., 1972. 5th ed., rev.  Main Level, Reference: R 909.002 L262E

Historical Dictionary of European Imperialism. James S. Olson, editor ; Robert Shadle, senior associate editor ; associate editors, Ross Marlay, William G. Ratliff, Joseph M. Rowe, Jr.  Greenwood Press, 1991.  Main Level, Reference: R 903 H629H

The Hutchinson Dictionary of World History.  ABC-CLIO, c1993.  Main Level, Reference: 
R 903 H971H

Modern Germany: An Encyclopedia of History, People, and Culture, 1871-1990.  Dieter K. Buse and Juergen C. Doerr, editors.  Garland Pub., 1998. Main Level, Reference: R 943.08 M72M    2 volumes.

Dictionary of German History, 1806-1945.  Wilfried Fest.   St. Martin's Press, 1978.  Main Level, Reference:  R 943.0703 F426D

Historical Dictionary of European Imperialism. James S. Olson, editor. Greenwood Press, 1991.  Main Level, Reference:
R 903 H629H

Victorian Britain: An Encyclopedia. Sally Mitchell, editor. Garland Pub., 1988. Main Level, Reference: R 941.0810321 V666V


Handbooks, Companions, Chronologies   back to top

The Companion to British History [CREDO Reference].  Charles Arnold-Baker. Routledge Pub., 2001. 

The Oxford Companion to British History [Oxford Reference Online].  John Cannon, editor.  Oxford University Press, 2003.  

Chronology of European History, 15,000 BC to 1997.  John Powell, editor.  Salem Press, 1997.  (3 volumes).   Main Level, Reference: R 940.02 C468C

Biographical Sources   back to top

Gale Biography in Context [Gale]
Contains 600,000+ biographies covering more than 525,000 individuals. Includes biographical articles from reference books and periodicals as well as multimedia content.

The Dictionary of National Biography: From the Earliest Times to 1900. Leslie Stephen and Sidney Lee, editors. 22 volumes plus supplements.
Main Level, Reference:
R 920.042 D56

Writing Guides   back to top

Humanities: Documenting Sources
[Research and Documentation Online], Bedford/St. Martins, 2003.

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th ed., Modern Language Association, 2009.
Main Level, Ready Reference Shelf and Reference Collection: R 808.02 M72M

Writing Center, Presbyterian College
Citation styles, writing guides, and scheduling an appointment with a tutor.


Locating Books   back to top

THOMCAT - Use the online catalog to locate books in Thomason Library. You can search by author, title, keyword, or subject.

  • Search for a person, as AUTHOR or SUBJECT, with last name, first name:              

Bismarck, Otto, Fürst von, 1815-1898   [as AUTHOR]                 

  Bismarck, Otto, Fürst von, 1815-1898   [as SUBJECT]              
  Tocqueville, Alexis de, 1805-1859     [as AUTHOR]    
  Tocqueville, Alexis de, 1805-1859     [as SUBJECT]     
  Marx, Karl, 1818-1883                     [as AUTHOR]    
  Marx, Karl, 1818-1883                     [as SUBJECT]  
  • SUBJECT searching requires use of Library of Congress subject headings. The terms below are examples of subject headings related to biology:


  Europe -- History  
  Europe -- History -- 1789-1900  
  Europe -- Social conditions -- 1789-1900  
  Europe -- Economic conditions -- 1789-1900  
  Europe -- Civilization -- 19th century  

Europe -- Politics and government -- 1789-1900

  Europe -- Politics and government -- 1815-1848  

Germany -- History -- 1871-1918

  Germany -- History -- 1848-1870
  Germany -- History -- 1789-1900  
  Germany -- Politics and government -- 1789-1900  
  Prussia (Germany) -- Politics and government -- 1815-1870  
  France -- History -- Revolution, 1789-1799  
  France -- History -- Second Empire, 1852-1870
  Working class -- Great Britain -- History  
  History, Modern -- 19th century  
  History, Modern -- 20th century  
  Austria -- History -- Revolution, 1848-1849  
  World War, 1914-1918 -- Causes  

Subject searching is an effective and precise method of searching the catalog, however, KEYWORD searching has benefits, also.

  • Try a KEYWORD search using two or three of the most significant words from the title or subject you are trying to find if you are unsure of the exact title or the correct subject heading to use. Place phrases in "quotation marks."

  • Connect words with AND, OR, NOT to focus your search.
  • Try truncation at the end of a word stem to retrieve singular, plural, and other variations of the word.  Use an asterisk (*) to truncate from 1 to 5 characters. Use a double asterisk (**) to include word endings with an unlimited number of characters.
KEYWORD Searching Tips

· Add an asterisk * to the root of a word to truncate or expand
a term:
europ* = europe, european, europeans, europa, etc.

· Use AND between words to narrow your search:
carlsbad decrees AND censorship
  Germany AND industr*

Use OR between words to expand your search terms
Chartism OR Chartist Movement

When combining "AND" and "OR" terms,
group "OR" terms with parentheses:

coloniz* OR imperial*)

Try KEYWORD searching with THOMCAT, other library catalogs,
an journal databases

catholic church AND politic* AND france AND nineteenth century

PASCAL Delivers back to top

PASCAL Catalog - If you need books in addition to those found at Thomason Library, try your search here for books in other academic libraries in SC. Through PASCAL Delivers, you can order books online for delivery within 3-4 working days. This service for current PC students, faculty, and staff is a project of PASCAL- Partnership Among SC Academic Libraries. Borrowers will be notified by e-mail when requested items arrive at Thomason Library. Click here for searching and ordering tips.

WorldCat & Interlibrary Loan back to top

WorldCat – A catalog of books and materials at libraries worldwide. Try searching here to find ALL books available on a topic. Materials available at Thomason Library are highlighted and others can be borrowed through ILL or searched in PASCALCAT.

Interlibrary Loan - ILL is available to PC students, faculty and staff in order to share resources between libraries. Check link for instructions.

Locating Articles:    
Journal Article Databases   back to top

The following journal databases are available to PC students, faculty, and staff from on- and off-campus locations.  Search using keywords or phrases dealing with your topic. Click here for search tips.

Academic Search Complete [EBSCOhost]

The world's most valuable and comprehensive scholarly, multi-disciplinary full-text database, with more than 8,500 full-text periodicals, including more than 7,300 peer-reviewed journals.

Archive of journals including the Arts & Sciences, as well as Ecology and Botany Collection (most recent three years issues not available in this archive)

Project MUSE Basic Undergraduate Collection  
Current and recent volumes of 112 core journals in the humanities and social sciences.

Journal Finder   back to top
Journal Finder provides access to PC's electronic and print journals, magazines, and newspapers in one convenient location.

Browse Journal Finder by title or subject. When browsing or searching, you can read articles from any journal that is available in the Full-text resources online group of results. Choose a database in this group based on the dates available and the time frame in which you are interested.

Library article databases are inter-connected by Journal Finder, which will lead you to the full-text of an article when available.




Internet Sources:   back to top
Collections of Primary Source Documents   back to top


Avalon Project: 19th Century Documents

Internet Modern History Sourcebook: 19th Century Austria and Germany 

Internet Modern History Sourcebook: 19th Century France

Internet Modern History Sourcebook: 19th Century Britain

Internet Modern History Sourcebook: 1848, Europe in Revolt.

World War I Document Archive   Includes page "Pre-1914 Documents"

New! European History Primary Documents [European University Institute]

"A joint venture between various organizations within the European University Institute...this ambitious project attempts to create a single site compiling all digitized primary sources pertaining to European history. The various sites are arranged by nation, language, period, subject, and type of source, creating an easily usable index of digitized European primary sources. The site also features a search box that allows users to search all of the sites contained in the index." description from CHOICE Reviews Online 11/2010

Primary Source Readings (from course syllabus)   back to top

            The French Revolution in 1789

Decree Abolishing the Feudal System (1789).

Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen (1789)

The French Revolution: Reign of Terror (September 1)
Revolutionary song "ca Ira"

Edmund Burke, "The Death of Marie Antoinette (1793)

Maximilien Robespierre, Justification of the Use of Terror (1794)

             Napoleon Bonaparte (September 3)

Napolean's Proclamation to His Troops in Italy (1796)

Napolean's Account of the Internal Situation of France (1804)

The Return of Napolean from Elba (1815)

Congress of Vienna (September 8)
Metternich, Political Confessions of Faith (1820)

               Industrialization (September 10)
Friederich Engels, Industrial Manchester (1844)

Andrew Ure, The Philosophy of the Manufacturers (1835)

        Changes in the World of Ideas (September 17)

Charles Darwin, the Descent of Man (1871) 

Thomas Henry Huxley, The Struggle for Existence (1888)

Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)

                   Nationalism (September 22)

Ernst Moritz Arndt, The German Fatherland

Max Schneckenburger, The Watch on The Rhine (1870)

Restoration Europe, 1815-1848 (September 24)

Metternich, Carlsbad Decrees (1819)

              The Revolutions of 1848 (September 29)

Alexander Petofi, The National Song of Hungary (1848)

Percy B. St. John. The French Revolution in 1848

             The Consequences of 1848 (October 1)

Alphonse de Lamartine, History of the Revolution of 1848 in France

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto (1848)

                France’s Second Empire (October 6)
Louis Napoleon’s Inaugural Speech (1853) [on Blackboard]

Leon Gambetta, the Belleville Manifesto (1869)

                 Italian Unification (October 8)
Documents of Italian Unification, 1846-61

Garibaldi, Report of the Conquest of Naples (1860)

King Victor Emmanuel, Address to Parliament, Rome (1871) |

                 German Unification (October 15)

Excerpt from Bismarck's "Blood and Iron" Speech (1862)

Bismarck’s Ems Telegram (1870)

Discussions before the Proclamation of the German Empire (1871)

                Reform and Reaction in Russia (October 20)
Baroness M. De Packh, On The March to Siberia (c. 1840)

Count von Moltke, The Coronation of Tsar Alexander II (1855)

Alexander II, The Emancipation Manifesto (1861) [check this replacement document]

                    The Age of Imperialism (October 22)

Jules Ferry, On French Colonial Expansion (1884)

Prince Ukhtomskii, Russia's Imperial Destiny (1891)

Capt. F. D. Lugard, The Rise of Our East African Empire (1893)

                    Imperialism and its Critics (October 27)
Rudyard Kipling, The White Man's Burden (1899)

John A. Hobson, Imperialism (1902)

Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness (1902)

Edward Morel, The Black Man's Burden (1903) [check this replacement document, 1920 book in Internet Archive]

                      Marxism and Working-Class Movements (October 29)
Socialist Labor Party of Germany, The Gotha Program (1875)

Bismarck’s Speech on the Law for Workers’ Compensation (1884)

Socialist Labor Party of Germany, The Erfurt Program (1891)

Alexandre Millerand, Reformist Socialism (1903)

                     Third Republic in France, 1871-1914 (November 3)
John Leighton, One Day Under the Paris Commune (1871)

                      Imperial Germany, 1871-1912 (November 5)
Maurice Leudet, A Day with Kaiser Wilhelm II (1898)

Bernhard von Bülow’s “Dynamic” Foreign Policy (1899)

Kaiser Wilhelm II on German Interests in China (1900)

Mrs. Alfred Sidgwick, Student Life at the German Universities (1900)

                   The Habsburg Empire, 1848-1914 (November 10)
Count von Beust, Memoirs of the Ausgleich (1867)

Mark Twain, "Stirring Times in Austria" (1898)

                    The Russian Empire, 1894-1914 (November 12)
Sergei Witte, On the tasks for economic policy (1900)

The Russian Fundamental Law of 23 April 1906

Marie Sukloff, The Story of an Assassination (1914)

                    International Relations (November 17)
The Dual Alliance Between Austria-Hungary and Germany (1879)

The Three Emperors League (1881)

The Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy (1883)

Bismarck’s Reinsurance Treaty with Russia (1887)

                   Diplomacy and the Road to War (November 24)
The Franco-Russian Alliance Military Convention (1892)

The Franco-British Declaration (1904)

Anglo-Russian-Entente (1907)

Napoleon III and Bismarck after the Battle of Sedan.
Wilhelm Camphausen, 1882. Oil on canvas. Bridgeman Art Archives,

CREDO Reference database

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