James H. Thomason Library

History 378:

Twentieth Century Europe, 1914-2004

                     See also Course Guide for History 458: WWII in Europe

Background Information Sources


ABOVE: France, World War II, Liberation (1944). Henri Cartier-Bresson.
BELOW: Germany, Berlin Wall Nov.10, 1989. Mark Power.  ARTstor Image Database.

  Encyclopedias & Dictionaries
  Handbooks & Companions
  Reference Databases

Biographical Sources

  Writing Guides
Locating Books
  PASCAL Delivers
  WorldCat & I.L.L.
Locating Articles
  Journal Article Databases
  Journal Finder
Assigned Readings
  Primary & Secondary Source Readings (from syllabus)
Get Help

denotes recommended resource

Background Information Sources    
Encyclopedias & Dictionaries   back to top

The Blackwell Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Social Thought. William Outhwaite, Tom Bottomore, editors. Blackwell, 1993.

Main Level, Reference: R 300.3 B568B

Dictionary of German History, 1806-1945.  Wilfried Fest.   St. Martin's Press, 1978.  

Main Level, Reference:  R 943.0703 F426D

Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe: From the Congress of Vienna to the Fall of Communism. Richard Frucht, ed.  Garland Pub., 2000. 
Main Level, Reference:
 R 947.003 En19E

Encyclopedia of European Social History from 1350 to 2000. Peter N. Stearns, editor-in-chief   Scribner, c2001.   6 volumes.   

Main Level, Reference: R 306.094 En19E  
v. 1. Methods and theoretical approaches -- The periods of social history -- Regions, nations, and peoples -- Europe and the world -- v. 2. Processes of social change -- Population and geography -- Cities and urbanization -- Rural life -- State and society -- v. 3. Social structure -- Social protest -- Deviance, crime, and social control -- Social problems and social reform -- v. 4. Gender -- The family and age groups -- Sexuality -- Body and mind -- Work -- v. 5. Culture and popular culture -- Modern recreation and leisure -- Religion -- Education and literacy -- Everyday life -- v. 6. Biographies -- Contributors -- Index

Encyclopedia of Russian History.  James R. Millar, editor.  Macmillan Reference, 2004.

Main Level, Reference:  R 947.003 En19E2  [4 vols]

An Encyclopedia of World History; Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Chronologically Arranged. Compiled and edited by William L. Langer. Houghton Mifflin Pub., 1972. 5th ed., rev.  

Main Level, Reference: R 909.002 L262E

Encyclopedia of World War II: A Political, Social and Military History, Spencer C. Tucker, ed. (vols. 1-4), Priscilla Mary Roberts, ed., vol. 5.  ABC-CLIO, 2005. 
Main Level, Reference: R 940.5303 En19E [5 vols]

Historical Dictionary of European Imperialism. James S. Olson, editor. Greenwood Press, 1991.

Main Level, Reference: R 903 H629H

The Hutchinson Dictionary of World History.  ABC-CLIO, c1993.  Main Level, Reference: 

R 903 H971H

Modern Germany: An Encyclopedia of History, People, and Culture, 1871-1990. Dieter K. Buse and Juergen C. Doerr, editors.  Garland Pub., 1998.

Main Level, Reference: R 943.08 M72M   [2 vols]

One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. James B. Minahan. Greenwood Press, 2000. 
Main Level, Reference: R 940.03 M664O 

Propaganda and Mass Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present [CREDO Reference] Nicholas J. Cull, David Culbert, David Welch ABC-CLIO, c2003.

Twentieth-Century Britain: An Encyclopedia. F.M. Leventhal, editor. Garland Pub., 1995.

Main Level, Reference:  R 941.082 T918T

World War II in Europe: An EncyclopediaDavid T. Zabecki, editor. Garland Pub., 1999.

Main Level, Reference: R 940.5303 W893W  [2 vols]

Handbooks, Companions, Chronologies   back to top

The Companion to British History [CREDO Reference].  Charles Arnold-Baker. Routledge Pub., 2001. 

The Oxford Companion to British History [Oxford Reference Online].  John Cannon, editor.  Oxford University Press, 2003.  

Chronology of European History, 15,000 BC to 1997.  John Powell, editor.  Salem Press, 1997.    

Main Level, Reference: R 940.02 C468C [3 vols]

Reference Databases   back to top

Gale World History in Context [Gale]
Full-text database providing a broad collection of full-text periodicals, reference works, primary documents, and scholarly analysis.

Biographical Sources   back to top

Gale Biography in Context [Gale]
Contains 600,000+ biographies covering more than 525,000 individuals. Includes biographical articles from reference books and periodicals as well as multimedia content.

Writing Guides   back to top

Humanities: Documenting Sources
[Research and Documentation Online], Bedford/St. Martins, 2003.

Writing Center, Presbyterian College
Citation styles, writing guides, and scheduling an appointment with a tutor.


Locating Books back to top

Use the online catalog, THOMCAT, to locate books in Thomason Library. You can search by author, title, keyword, or subject.

  • Search for a person, as AUTHOR or SUBJECT, with last name, first name:              

  Gaulle, Charles de [as AUTHOR]                 

    Gaulle, Charles de  [as SUBJECT]              
  • SUBJECT searching requires use of Library of Congress subject headings. The terms below are examples of subject headings related to biology:


  Europe -- History  
  Europe -- History -- 20th century  
  Europe -- Social conditions -- 20th century  
  Europe -- Politics and government -- 20th century  
  Great Britain -- History -- 20th century  
  France -- History -- Third Republic, 1870-1940  
  France -- History -- 20th century  

Germany -- History -- 1871-1918

  Germany -- History -- 1848-1870
  Germany -- History -- 1789-1900  
  Germany -- Politics and government -- 1789-1900  
  Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)  
  Spain -- History -- 1939-1975  
  Franco, Francisco, 1892-1975  
  Italy -- Foreign relations -- 1922-1945  
  Yugoslavia -- Politics and government -- 1992-  
  History, Modern -- 20th century  
  Stalin, Joseph, 1879-1953  
  Political purges -- Soviet Union  
  World War, 1914-1918 -- Causes  

World War 1939 1945 Causes


World War 1939 1945 Campaigns Western Front


World War 1939 1945 Diplomatic History


Subject searching is an effective and precise method of searching the catalog, however, KEYWORD searching has benefits, also.

  • Try a KEYWORD search using two or three of the most significant words from the title or subject you are trying to find if you are unsure of the exact title or the correct subject heading to use. Place phrases in "quotation marks."

  • Connect words with AND, OR, NOT to focus your search.
  • Try truncation at the end of a word stem to retrieve singular, plural, and other variations of the word.  Use an asterisk (*) to truncate from 1 to 5 characters. Use a double asterisk (**) to include word endings with an unlimited number of characters.
KEYWORD Searching Tips

· Add an asterisk * to the root of a word to truncate or expand
a term:
europ* = europe, european, europeans, europa, etc.

· Use AND between words to narrow your search:
europe*AND history
  Germany AND industr*

Use OR between words to expand your search terms
World War II OR Second World War

When combining "AND" and "OR" terms,
group "OR" terms with parentheses:

stalin AND
purge* OR moscow trials)

Try KEYWORD searching with THOMCAT, other library catalogs,
an journal databases
eBooks back to top

EBSCO eBook Academic Collection 
Over 80,000 electronic books covering a wide range of academic disciplines.

EBSCO eBook Collection

Approximatley 8,000 electronic books covering a vast array of topics and themes.

ebrary eBook Collection 
Approximatley 70,000 electronic books covering a vast array of topics and themes.

PASCAL Delivers back to top

PASCAL Catalog - If you need books in addition to those found at Thomason Library, try your search here for books in other academic libraries in SC. Through PASCAL Delivers, you can order books online for delivery within 3-4 working days. This service for current PC students, faculty, and staff is a project of PASCAL- Partnership Among SC Academic Libraries. Borrowers will be notified by e-mail when requested items arrive

at Thomason Library. Click here for searching and ordering tips.


WorldCat & Interlibrary Loan back to top

WorldCat – A catalog of books and materials at libraries worldwide. Try searching here to find ALL books available on a topic. Materials available at Thomason Library are highlighted and others can be borrowed through ILL or searched in PASCALCAT.

Interlibrary Loan - ILL is available to PC students, faculty and staff in order to share resources between libraries. Check link for instructions.

Locating Articles:  
Journal Article Databases   back to top

The following journal databases are available to PC students, faculty, and staff from on- and off-campus locations.  Search using keywords or phrases dealing with your topic.

Click here for search tips.

Archive of journals including the Arts & Sciences, as well as Ecology and Botany Collection (most recent three years issues not available in this archive)

Academic Search Complete [EBSCOhost] 
The world's most valuable and comprehensive scholarly, multi-disciplinary full-text database, with more than 8,500 full-text periodicals, including more than 7,300 peer-reviewed journals.

Project MUSE Basic Undergraduate Collection  
Current and recent volumes of 112 core journals in the humanities and social sciences.

Journal Finder back to top
Journal Finder provides access to PC's electronic and print journals, magazines, and newspapers in one convenient location.

Browse Journal Finder by title or subject. When browsing or searching, you can read articles from any journal that is available in the Full-text resources online group of results. Choose a database in this group based on the dates available and the time frame in which you are interested.

Library article databases are inter-connected by Journal Finder, which will lead you to the full-text of an article when available.



Assigned Readings back to top
Primary & Secondary Source Readings (from course syllabus)   back to top

The Great War and its Legacy (January 14)
Primary Sources:

Fritz Kreisler, Four Weeks in the Trenches, 1915
Siegfried Sassoon, Attack, 1918
Treaty of Versailles, 1919
Secondary Sources
Stephen J. Lee, European Dictatorships, pp. 122-157; 157-177.   

Dictatorship in Germany (January 26)
Primary Sources

Adolf Hitler, Speech, 1921 and Mein Kampf, 1926
Hitler’s Letter to Colonel Walther von Reichenau (December 4, 1932)
Secondary Sources 
Stephen J. Lee, European Dictatorships, pp. 178-197; 197-235

Dictatorship in South and Eastern Europe (January 28)
Primary Sources: The Potsdam Declaration, August 1945
Secondary Sources Stephen J. Lee, European Dictatorships, pp. 278-300; 301-317; 317-346.  


World War II and the Holocaust (February 2)
Primary Sources:
Hitler’s Secret Speech to Military Commanders (February 10, 1939)

The Wannsee Protocol (January 20, 1942)   
Secondary Sources Stephen J. Lee, European Dictatorships, pp. 235-259; 197-235; 259-277.

Berlin 1945: End of WWII and Judgment Day (February 4)
Primary Sources:
Nuremberg--A Fair Trial? Dangerous Precedent, April 1946

Required Film:
Oliver Hirschbiegel, Downfall (2004)

Germany Occupied and Divided (February 9)
Primary Sources:
The Potsdam Declaration, August 1945
Speech by General Lucius D. Clay (October 17, 1945)
Secondary Sources
William Hitchcock, The Struggle for Europe, Chapter 1.

Italy from War to Peace (February 11)
Class takes place in PC Library!
Secondary Sources:

Paul Ginsborg, A History of Contemporary Italy, pp. 39-72. [Blackboard]
Required Film: Roberto Rossellini, Rome, Open City (1945)

France and Vichy's Legacy (February 16)
Primary Sources:
Sympathetic account of Marshall Philippe Petain's Trial in August 1945
"Petain convicted" from The New York Times, August 15, 1945 [Blackboard]
Secondary Sources
William Hitchcock, The Struggle for Europe, Chapter 3.

Renewal in Britain (February 18)
Primary Sources:
Labour Party Declaration, Let us face the Future, 1945
G. R. Strauss' Speech on Nationalization of Steel Industry, 1948
Secondary Sources Hitchcock, Chapter 2.

Tragedy of Eastern Europe, 1945-1953 (February 23)
Primary Sources:
George Orwell, Nineteen Eighty-Four, excerpts [Blackboard]
Matyas Rakosi, How we took over Hungary, 1952
Secondary Sources:
Hitchcock, Chapter 4.

The Advent of European Integration (February 25)
First Paper Due!!
Primary Sources:
George Marshall's Speech in June 1947

Letter from Jean Monnet to Robert Schuman, April 18, 1948
The Schuman Declaration, May 9, 1950
Letter from Jean Monnet to Robert Schuman, July 1, 1952

Secondary Sources:
Hitchcock, Chapter 5

Spring Break on March 2 and 4 – no class!!

Decolonization of French and British Empires (March 9)
Primary Sources:
Clement Attlee's Address to the House of Commons, March 15, 1946
Letter from Ho Chi Minh to Harry S. Truman, February 28, 1946
Letter Dwight D. Eisenhower to US Ambassador to France, May 6, 1953

Secondary Sources:

Hitchcock, Chapter 6.
Required Film
Gillo Pontecorvo, The Battle of Algiers (1967)

Rebellion in Eastern Europe, 1953-1968 (March 11)
Primary Sources
Bela Liptak, A Testament of Revolution, 1956 [Blackboard]
West Berlin Mayor's Appeal to U.S. President on August 13, 1961
Pravda condemns ‘Prague Spring' on 19 June 1968
Secondary Sources
Hitchcock, Chapter 7.

The Decade of de Gaulle (March 16)
Primary Sources Charles de Gaulle's Speech at Constantine, Algeria, October 3, 1958
Charles de Gaulle, Europe and Its Role In World Affairs, July 23, 1964
Charles de Gaulle's "Non" to Britain's entry into the EEC, May 16, 1967
Secondary Sources Hitchcock, Chapter 8.

1968 and its Legacy (March 18)
Primary Sources
Student Voices of Protest, 1968 [Blackboard] Vavlac Havel, Disturbing the Peace, pp. 75-122 [First Class]
Secondary Sources Hitchcock, Chapter 9.
Required Film:
Volker Schlöndorff, The Legend of Rita (2001)

Southern Europe Emerges (March 23)
Primary Sources
"Getting ready for EEC" from The Guardian, November 11, 1978
Address given by Jean François-Poncet on December 5, 1979
"The Accession of Spain and Portugal" from Le Monde, June 14, 1985
Secondary Sources Hitchcock, Chapter 10.

Solidarity: The Polish Rebellion (March 25)
Primary Sources
Solidarity Union, The Twenty-One Demands, 1980

A Western Observer on East German Passive Resistance, 1982
Secondary Sources
Hitchcock, Chapter 11.
Required Film Volker Schlöndorff, The Strike (2006

Mrs. Thatcher's Revolution (March 30)
Primary Sources
Letter from Margaret Thatcher to Gaston Thorn on August 5, 1982

Margaret Thatcher, Christianity and Wealth, 1988
Secondary Sources Hitchcock, Chapter 12.

The Soviet Union up to 1991 (April 1)
Primary Sources
Gorbachev's Explanation of Glasnost and Perestroika, 1986
Alain Peyrefitte, "Shattered Hopes" from Le Figaro, August 20, 1991
Secondary Sources
Pearson, The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire, pp. 116-165 [Blackboard]

The Velvet Revolutions of 1989-1990 (April 6)
Second Paper Due!!
Primary Sources
Timothy Garton Ash, The Magic Lantern, excerpts [First Class]

Secondary Sources Hitchcock, Chapter 13.

Required Film Wolfgang Becker, Good bye Lenin! (2004)

The Catastrophe in Yugoslavia (April 8)
Primary Sources
Lord Owen's Speech at the Council of Europe on October 3, 1992
David Rohde, Serbia Held Responsible For Massacre, October 24, 1995
"SAS hero defies gag over massacre" from The Sunday Times, July 7, 2000

Secondary Sources
Hitchcock, Chapter 14.
Required Film
Danis Tanovic, No Man's Land (2002)

Immigration and the Far-Right in Europe (April 13)
Primary Sources
Francoise Gaspard, A Small City in France, excerpts [Blackboard]
Secondary Sources
Hitchcock, Chapter 15.
Required Film
Michael Haneke, Cache/Hidden (2006)

Honor’s Day on April 15 – no class!!

The European Union and Europe in the 1990s (April 20)
Primary Sources
"The Council of Europe" from Le Monde, May 12, 1992
Francois Mitterand on the future of European Integration [Blackboard]
Secondary Sources
Hitchcock, Chapter 16.
Required Film
Cédric Klapisch, L'Auberge espagnole (2003)

Conclusion: Quo Vadis Europe? (April 22)
Primary Sources
Bring a recent The New York Times’ article about Europe to class and be ready to discuss it.
Secondary Sources

Hitchcock, Afterword.

Get Help   back to top
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