Major in Biology

Students who major in biology must complete 63 to 65 hours, including

  • BIOL 1150-1150L*, 1151-1151L*, 2002, 2340, 3990, 4010,
  • and 23 to 24 additional hours of BIOL coursework.

This 23 to 24 hours must include at least one course each from

  • Cell/Molecular (select one)
    • BIOL 2090, or BIOL/ENVI 3040, BCHE/BIOL 3210
  • Evolution/Ecology (select one)
    • BIOL 2120, BIOL/ENVI 3140, BIOL 3200
  • Plant Biology (select one)
    • BIOL/ENVI 2030, BIOL/ENVI 2060, BIOL 3120;
  • Electives (select three)
    • Chosen from any three- to four-hour courses offered by the department. If the BIOL elective is taught with an accompanying lab, the lab must be taken with the course to fulfill this requirement. Special Projects, Honors Research, Readings, Directed Studies, Internships and Research cannot count as BIOL electives. Only one Travel Course may count as a BIOL elective.

Students must complete the following related courses:

  • CHEM 101-101L, 102-102L, and 221-221L**;
  • PHYS 1500
  • and one of the following courses:
    • MATH 120, 199, 201, 210, 211;
    • or STAT 319, 320.

*Note:All students should take BIOL 1151-1151L. A grade of ‘C-‘ or higher in BIOL 1151- 1151L or its approved equivalent is required to enroll in any upper division biology course.

**Note: Pre-professional and pre-graduate school students are strongly advised to take CHEM 222-222L.

Major in Biology with Minor in Secondary Education Certification to Teach High School Biology/Science

Students who wish to be certified to teach biology/science in the high school setting must meet the requirements for the major in biology, including

  • BIOL 1150-1150L*, 1151-1151L*, 2002, 2340, 3990, and 4010;
  • CHEM 101-101L, 102-102L**, 221-221L
  • PHYS 1500

Select 4 hours from the following courses:

  • BIOL 2010, 2030, 2090, or 2150;

Select 17 hours from the following:

  • BCHE 307/307L, 308,
  • BIOL 3020, 3030/3030L, 3040, 3060, 3110/3110L, 3120, 3140, 3180, 3200, 3210, 3360, 4002, 4003, 4004, 4005, 4006, 4007, 4008, 4009;

Additionally, students must complete the minor in secondary education and all other requirements for teacher certification and acceptance into the Teacher Education Program.

*Note: All students should take BIOL1151-1151L. A grade of ‘C-‘ or higher in BIOL 1151-1151L or its approved equivalent is required to enroll in any upper division biology course.

**Note: All students must complete the American Chemical Society General Chemistry Exam with a grade of 60% or higher to receive credit for CHEM 102.

Major in Biology: Pharmacy Concentration (Dual Degree)

Students participating in this program will be expected to complete all Presbyterian College general education requirements. Students who major in biology with pre-pharmacy concentration must complete 64 or 65 hours, including

  • BIOL 1150-1150L, 1151-1151L, 2002, 3060, 3110/3110L

Select 1 course from the following:

  • BIOL 3020;
  • or BIOL 3030/3030L;

Biology Area Courses (Select one from each subcategory):

  • Cell/Molecular Biology: BIOL 2090, BIOL/ENVI 3040, BIOL 3180, BCHE/BIOL 3210, BCHE 307/307L
  • Evolution/Ecology/Plant Biology: BIOL/ENVI 2030, 2060, 3140, BIOL 2120, 3120, 3200

Required Related Courses:

  • CHEM 101-101L, 102-102L*, 221-221L, and 222-222L;
  • PHYS 1500,
  • SPCH 201

Select 1 course from the following:

  • MATH 199
  • or MATH 201

Select 1 course from the following:

  • MATH 120
  • MATH 210
  • STAT 319
  • STAT 320

Select 1 course from the following:

  • ECON 201
  • ECON 202

Select 1 course from the following:

  • PSYC 201
  • SOC 201

To satisfy this major, the following courses must be completed once enrolled as a student at the PC School of Pharmacy:

  • PHRM 6104
  • PHRM 8299
  • PHRM 8399

*Note: All students must complete the American Chemical Society General Chemistry Exam with a grade of 60% or higher to receive credit for Chemistry 102.

All courses must be completed with a grade of ‘C’ or better.

A minimum cumulative GPA of 2.5 is required for admission to the Pharmacy program.

Minor in Biology

The minor in biology consists of 19 hours, including

  • BIOL 1150-1150L;
  • BIOL 1151-1151L*;
  • and 11 elective hours chosen from BIOL electives taught at or above the 2000-level (excluding BIOL 3990).

*Notes: All students should take BIOL 1151-1151L. A grade of ‘C-‘ or higher in BIOL 1151-1151L or its approved equivalent is required to enroll in any upper division biology course.

Minor in Environmental Studies

Students who minor in environmental studies must complete 20 hours, including

  • BIOL 1150-1150L
  • BIOL 1151-1151L
  • BIOL/ENVI 2150

Select 4 hours from the following:

  • BIOL/ENVI 2010, 2030, 2070, 3040, or 3140

Select 3 hours from the following:

  • Econ 306
  • ENVI/RELG 318
  • ENVI 442
  • ENVI 458
  • PHIL 317
  • SOC 360

Select 1 hours from the following:

  • ENVI 444, 446, 448, 450, 452, or another appropriate course as approved by environmental studies advisor.

Minor in Marine Studies

Students who minor in marine studies must complete 19 hours, including

  • GCRL: Marine Science I Oceanography
  • GCRL: Marine Science II Marine Biology
  • Select 9 hours from the following:
    • BIOL 2010 Invertebrate Zoology
    • GCRL: Barrier Island Ecology
    • GCRL: Coastal Herpetology
    • GCRL: Coastal Ornithology
    • GCRL: Environmental Photography
    • GCRL: Ichthyology
    • GCRL: Marine Aquaculture
    • **GCRL: Marine Biology for Teachers
    • GCRL: Marine Ecology
    • ***GCRL: Marine Embryology
    • *GCRL: Marine Invertebrates
    • GCRL: Marine Mammals
    • GCRL: Marine Toxicology
    • ****GCRL: Parasites of Marine Animals
    • GCRL: Shark Biology
    •  GCRL: Zooplankton Ecology
  • Courses suitable pending committee approval:
    • BIOL 4005 Directed Studies
    • BIOL 4007 Internship
    • BIOL 4008 Research
    • BIOL 4002 Special Projects
    • BIOL 4009 Special Topic
    • CHEM 442 Directed Studies
  • Approved courses taken at Duke Marine Laboratory
  • Approved transfer courses taken at PC-affiliate institutions
  • Marine-related Maymester courses
  • Research at a specific independent laboratory
  • Studies at Belle Baruch Marine Lab/Hobcaw Barony
  • Research at the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory
  • *cannot be used if student has taken BIOL 2010 GCRL: Marine Toxicology 3

**cannot be used if student has taken BIOL 2160

***cannot be used if student has taken BIOL 3040

****cannot be used if student has taken BIOL 2080 GCRL: Zooplankton Ecology 5

CO = Co-requisite, POI = Permission of Instructor, PR = Prerequisite, RE = Recommended, XL = Cross-listed

Biology 1000 Survey of Life (4)

A survey of the structure, function, and ecology of living organisms. This course is designed for non-majors as an offering in general education. (Fall and Spring)

1150 Biological Concepts (3)

(CO: BIOL 1150L) A broad introduction to the principles of living organisms. Emphases include scientific methodology, biomolecules, cell structure and function, homeostasis, metabolism and photosynthesis, population dynamics, genetics, and natural selection. (Fall)

1150L Biological Concepts Laboratory (1)

(CO: BIOL 1150) The laboratory supplement to the lecture content of BIOL 1150. (Fall)

1151 Organismal Biology (3)

(PR: BIOL 1150 and 1150L with a grade of “C” or higher; CO: BIOL 1151L) A course in topics in the life sciences designed for majors in biology. Emphases include diversity of living things, plant and animal form and function, and evolution. (Spring)

1151L Organismal Biology Laboratory (1)

(PR: BIOL 1150 and 1150L with a grade of “C” or higher • CO: BIOL 1151) A laboratory experience based on the course content of BIOL 1151. This laboratory emphasizes contemporary research methods and scientific reporting in the life sciences. (Spring)

198 Seminar in Biological Primary Literature I (0.5)

(PR: BIOL 1151 with a grade of “C” or higher) This course focuses on the basic tools and techniques for finding, reading, and critically discussing primary scientific literature. (Fall)

199 Seminar in Biological Primary Literature II (0.5)

(PR: BIOL 1151 with a grade 111 of “C” or higher, BIOL 198) This course uses the basic skills developed previously to more deeply explore primary scientific literature. (Spring)

201 Invertebrate Zoology (4)

(3 hrs. lecture, 3 hrs. lab weekly • PR: BIOL 1151 with a grade of “C” or higher) Studies of the principal phyla of the invertebrates emphasizing their increasing complexity of structure, physiology, ecology, and evolutionary relationships.

203 Introductory Botany (4)

(3 hrs. lecture, 3 hrs. lab weekly • PR: BIOL 1151 with a grade of “C” or higher) Intensive review of phyla of plant kingdom. Morphology, physiology, reproduction, ecology, and principles of classification studied in each group.

206 Plant Systematics (4)

(3 hrs. lecture, 3 hrs. lab weekly • PR: BIOL 1151 with a grade of “C” or higher) The classification and identification of common and economically important vascular plants with attention given to ecological associations of native plants in South Carolina. The cultural and economic impact of herbal and medicinal plants will be examined. (Fall, Alternate years)

207 Biogeography (4)

(PR: BIOL 1151 with a grade of “C” or higher) Biogeography is the study of distributions of organisms, both past and present. It is the science that attempts to describe the patterns and distribution of species and larger taxonomic groups. Lecture and laboratory experiences will complement each other in an effort to comprehensively explore the ideas, philosophies, procedures, and techniques involved in biogeography.

208 Parasitology (4)

(PR: BIOL 1151 with a grade of “C” or higher) This course provides an in-depth study of parasitic organisms during both lecture and lab. Lecture topics will focus on parasite/host interactions, disease physiology, and current treatments. Lab exercises will introduce students to parasite morphology and histological examination of infected tissue.

209 Cell Biology (4)

(PR: BIOL 1151 with a grade of “C” or higher and CHEM 102) A study of the structure and function of the eukaryotic cell that includes a review of the biological macromolecules and chemical processes of the cell. The structure and functions of cell membranes, cellular organelles, and the cytoskeleton and the processes of protein synthesis and sorting, enzyme catalysis, cell movement, the cell cycle, and intracellular signaling are included. Lab exercises will include light and electron microscopy, cell fractionation, gel electrophonesis and cell tissue culture.

212 Evolution (4)

(3 hrs. lecture, 3 hrs. lab weekly • PR: BIOL 1151 with a grade of “C” or higher) The history and development of evolutionary theory from Darwinism in the 19th century to the Modern Synthesis of the 1950s to the most recent concepts and innovations. Includes references to the influence of evolutionary thought on 20th century ideas in science and humanities.

215 Environmental Science (4)

(PR: BIOL 1150, CHEM 101 or PHYS 1500) Introduces students to the relationships between humans and the natural and modified environments of the earth, with an emphasis on environmental problem solving using an interdisciplinary perspective. Surveys contemporary environmental issues, such as land use change, population pressures, food security, resource extraction, pollution, and ecosystem services. Also explores the roles of ethics, politics, society, scientific research, and technology in these issues.

234 Genetics (4)

(3 hrs. lecture, 3 hrs. lab weekly; PR: BIOL 1151 with a grade of “C” or higher and CHEM 102) A problems-based introduction to molecular and classical genetics and genomics. Key sections of the course cover what genes are, how they work, how they change, how gene expression is regulated and how genes are transmitted between generations. Lab will provide hands-on experience with experimental approaches to many of these same questions with emphasis on bacterial molecular genetics and genomics.

258 Special Topics (1-6)

302 Comparative Anatomy (4)

(2 hrs. lecture, 6 hrs. lab weekly • PR: BIOL 1151 with a grade of “C” or higher) A comparative study of vertebrate morphology. Gross and microscopic anatomy of organ systems will be examined on representatives of the major classes of vertebrates. (Alternate years)

303 Human Anatomy and Embryology (3)

(3 hrs. lecture weekly • PR: BIOL 1151 with a grade of “C” or higher; JR or SR status) This course concerns the functional morphology of the various organs within the human body and integrates these organ functions into systems that serve the needs of the human body for growth, maintenance and repair, and reproduction.

303L Human Anatomy and Embryology Lab (1)

(3 hrs. lab weekly • PR: BIOL 1151 with a grade of “C” or higher; JR or SR status • CO: BIOL 303) The student will gain proficiency in anatomical dissections and descriptive histology.

304 Developmental Biology (4)

(3 hrs. lecture, 3 hrs. lab weekly • PR: BIOL 1151 with a grade of “C” or higher • RE: BIOL 209 or 334) The integrated fields of cytology, genetics, biochemistry, and anatomy culminate in the study of development. Students will examine how complex living systems result from an undifferentiated single cell and the forces that drive such specialization. Lectures center on development at the cellular level. The laboratory is primarily concerned with experimental embryology of selected invertebrates and lower vertebrates.

306 Microbiology (4)

(3 hrs. lecture, 3 hrs. lab weekly; PR: BIOL 1151 with a grade of “C” or higher and CHEM 102) An introduction to microorganism with emphasis on bacteria. Topics include working with microbes, bacterial cell structure, motility and chemotaxis, microbial systematics, metabolic diversity, basics of microbial pathogenesis, and antibiotic resistance. The laboratory is organized around student research projects and provides an introduction to traditional and modern methods for the study of microbes.

311 Physiology (3)

(3 hrs. lecture • PR: BIOL 1151 with a grade of “C” or higher and CHEM 102 • RE: CHEM 221-CHEM 222 or PHYS 1500-1510) A study of the basic functional phenomena of living organisms from unicellular through multi-cellular animals emphasizing the comparative approach.

311L Physiology Lab (1)

(3 hrs. lab weekly • PR: BIOL 1151 with a grade of “C” or higher and CHEM 102 • CO: BIOL 311 • RE: CHEM 221-CHEM 222 or PHYS 1500-1510) Physiology laboratory includes studies of the following: osmotic phenomena, ionic effects, small animal metabolism, hormones, circulation, respiration, and muscle physiology.

312 Plant Physiology (4)

(3 hrs. lecture, 3 hrs. lab weekly • PR: BIOL 1151 with a grade of “C” or higher and CHEM 102 • RE: CHEM 221-222) This course is designed as an introduction into how plant cells function from seed germination to vegetative growth, maturation, and flowering.Topics include: water relationships, plant biochemistry, development, and environmental physiology. The laboratory portion includes studies of transpiration, plant mineral requirements, plant development, tissue culture, photosynthesis, and enzyme activity.

314 Ecology (4)

(3 hrs. lecture, 3 hrs. lab weekly • PR: BIOL 1151 with a grade of “C” or higher) A study of the interrelationships of plants and animals in their physical and biological environments. Structure and dynamics of the major ecosystems, with emphasis on individual behavior, populations, and communities. Lab and field work includes studies of natural and polluted systems.

318 Immunology (4)

(PR: BIOL 1151 with a grade of “C” or higher and CHEM 102) A study of the principles of immunology. Lecture topics include organs, cells, and pathways of the immune response, antigens, antibodies, immune specificity, humoral and cellular immunity, development, activation and regulation of the immune response, and immune disorders. Laboratory exercises include identification of the components of the immune system, antibody/ antigen interactions, immunoassays, and mitogenic responses.

320 Paleontology (4)

(PR: BIOL 1151 with a grade of “C” or higher) This course provides an in-depth introduction to the principles of paleontology. Lecture topics include models in paleontology, taphonomy, systematics and classification, morphology, paleoecology, evolution and extinction, paleobiogeography, biostratigraphy, milestone in the history of life, diversity of Phanerozoic Life, and use of index fossils in rock correlation. Laboratory exercises include fossil preservation, diversity of ancient life, ontogenetic variation, morphologic parameters and their uses, species recognition and evolution, microfossils, evolutionary patterns, and biostratigraphy as well as a survey of the major groups of fossil organisms.

335 Human Genetics (3)

The course is designed to introduce students who are interested in future healthcare professions to the specific effects of genetic variation on human biology primarily in settings where clinical problems arise due to mutation. Basic genetics is a prerequisite to this course.It is the intent of the course to increase both personal and professional awareness of the role and impact of genetics in healthcare. The course will review basic genetic principles; present the molecular aspects of genetic mutations; discuss classic and non-traditional inheritance; the significance of family history and pedigree analysis; genetic testing; and the ethical, legal, and social implications of the science. Emphasis is on what, why, and how to use genetic information in the healthcare professions.

336 Bioinformatics (3)

Bioinformatics arises from the interaction of biology, computer science, mathematics, and statistics. It deals with the staggering amount of biological information, mainly in the form of DNA and protein sequences, and tries to find ways to organize, sort, compare, and decode these sequences to find underlying similarities and patterns that are biologically relevant. The course will cover computational methods for the study of biological sequence data: analysis of genome methods for finding fractured patterns, phylogenetic methods, and protein structure prediction and modeling. Each of the problems will be analyzed both from the biologist’s and the computer scientist’s point of view. Students will have the opportunity to analyze biological data and experiment with available bioinformatics tools to solve bioinformatics problems.

398 Honors Research (3-6)

399 Scientific Writing & Presentation (2)

(PR: JR status) A course designed to familiarize the student with the library resources and techniques for conducting a literature search of a scientific topic. Students will receive instruction on the style and mechanics of writing a scientific review article and presenting a short seminar.

401 Senior Seminar (2)

(PR: BIOL 399 or POI, and SR status) Each student gains an in-depth knowledge of a selected current topic in biology by conducting an exhaustive search of the literature, giving an oral presentation of the results of this research, and preparing a written paper in acceptable scientific form. Instructions in each phase of study or presentation are given by the biology faculty. Majors will take the Educational Testing Services Field Test in biology as part of this course.

442 Directed Studies (1-9)

444 Internship (1-6)

A maximum of 3 hours credit may count toward the major.

446 Readings (1-9)

448 Research in Biology (3-6)

(PR: JR or SR status, BIOL major, minimum GPA of 2.5, and permission of the department) Independent research in one of several areas utilizing different approaches—a lab study, on-campus or off-campus studies at a biological field station or marine science lab. Students may take three to six hours during one or two semesters. Research hours cannot be terminal hours for the major.

450 Seminar (1-9)

452 Special Projects (1-6)

(PRE: minimum 28 hours earned credit, minimum GPA of 2.25, and permission of the department and Dean) Special course projects on demand to include predominantly off-campus offerings that will necessitate students being away from campus part of the time—may be graded on regular basis.

458 Special Topics (1-6)

May include field studies during the May term to give students an opportunity to study plants and animals in a variety of different habitats: overseas and local field studies; terrestrial and marine environmental study on islands such as Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, the Galapagos of Ecuador, etc.; fish and wildlife refuges in the eastern U. S.; or paleobiological and ecological studies of the Great Plains and the desert in the Southwest.